International Policy Digest

World News /29 Aug 2020
08.29.20

Ecuador’s Jaguar: A Pinnacle of Divinity and Ecological Health

Throughout Ecuador’s history, the jaguar has been admired as one of nature’s most exquisite animals. Indigenous peoples all celebrated the jaguar as a symbol of power and strength. The strength of a jaguar is indeed unquestionable. With a jaw powerful enough to crack a skull and night vision six times to that of a human, the reverence of the jaguar has undeniable merit. However, as times change, so does the impression of strength.

In the 21st century, ecological displacement has left many jaguars in a vulnerable position. Along Ecuador’s coastlines, jaguars face severe threats due to loss of habitat and poaching. The last 50 years has witnessed massive expansion in logging and agriculture. This has significantly contributed to the degradation of over 70% of the original forest cover in Ecuador’s coastal communities. Currently, approximately 2,000 jaguars remain in the wilds of Ecuador. For a country with 109,483 square miles of land, this statistic holds catastrophic implications

Firstly, the ecological importance of jaguars for Ecuador’s rainforest ecosystems cannot be understated. Acting as natural predators, jaguars help preserve the food chain in Ecuador’s rainforests. With fewer jaguars acting as predators, rodent populations will increase dramatically. These rodents will eat more insects and seeds, which will have a major impact on the quantity of plant life in rainforests. Additionally, an uptick in the rodent population will reinvigorate rat infestations throughout Ecuador. An extreme case of overpopulation can be seen in the crisis experienced by the Galapagos Islands. A crisis that prompted Ecuadorian officials to formulate a plan to exterminate 180 million non-native rodents in November of 2012. This crisis showcases the dangers of overpopulation and the importance of a naturalized food chain in our ecosystems.

Jaguars hold divine importance to Ecuador’s indigenous communities as well. In recent years, archeologists have discovered statues of jaguars from pre-Columbian times. This highlights the importance of the jaguar to many indigenous Ecuadorians. One of these indigenous groups are known as the Sápara people. Originally occupying 12,000 miles between the Pastaza and the Napo River, the Sápara people used bamboo darts to hunt tapirs and peccaries (both pig-like mammals). In the 20th century however, mass demand for rubber led to the destruction of much of the jungle area owned by the Sápara people.

This destruction also led to brutalized enslavement of the tribal men. The tribal women and girls were forced into sexual slavery. Today, many of the Sápara people struggle to retain relics of their heritage. One of their few remaining relics is the jaguar itself, which to them represents the wisdom of the mountains and preservation of Sápara spirits. Regarding the implications of a jaguar extinction in the Amazon Rainforest, indigenous Sápara leader Gloria Ushigua stated, “We would lose all of our knowledge. We would end horribly.”

Despite all of this negative information, good news still exists for jaguar preservation efforts. Many groups like the Wildlife Conservation Society have utilized camera traps throughout Ecuador’s terrain. These camera traps use heat sensors that activate when an animal is within close proximity. The camera’s sensors also allow wildlife conservation groups to identify individual jaguars, through unique spot patterns on the jaguar’s coat. This technology is critical in keeping tabs on jaguars in the surrounding areas. Ecuadorian conservationist Santiago Espinosa is one such WCS researcher, using camera traps to study jaguar populations in Ecuador’s Yasuni National Park.

According to Santiago Espinosa, “The main threats to jaguars in Ecuador are habitat degradation and loss due to various human activities.” Addressing these threats, Espinosa has used his research to calculate how much territory jaguars need to survive, while simultaneously showing indigenous groups like the Waorani people, ways of monitoring and preserving the wildlife in their area. These are all critical steps towards helping people build symbiotic relationships with nature.

Jaguars hold unique importance in the land of Ecuador. They support both the culture of indigenous Ecuadorians, as well as the ecological health of Ecuador’s rainforests. That is why it is crucial that environmental groups help protect the jaguar. In an age of rapidly advancing technology, benefits and detriments have presented themselves. It is important when discussing jaguar preservation, that we discuss both the technological detriments (logging and agriculture) and benefits (camera traps and habitat rehabilitation efforts) Ecuador faces. The detriments will help us understand ways in which technology has caused harm to our environment, while the benefits will help teach us how we can solve the problems that we ourselves created.

The jaguar is a symbol of divinity for many indigenous Ecuadorians. The jaguar is also a symbol of equilibrium for nature’s rainforests. Both symbols embodied by the jaguar show us that conserving Ecuador’s jaguars preserves the heart and soul of Ecuador itself.