Miguel Gutierrez/Agência Lusa

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Petro-Diplomacy: Venezuela, Iran, and the U.S.

In welcoming Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Iran’s former president, to Venezuela on November 25, 2009, Hugo Chávez described Ahmadinejad as “the gladiator of anti-imperialist struggles.” A clear indicator of the symbiotic relationship between the two petroleum-exporting states. Venezuela and Iran form an unconventional partnership made up of various bilateral agreements, joint operations, and mutual animosity towards the United States, intergovernmental organizations, and human rights.