Photo illustration by John Lyman



Taming Digital Hate: Lessons from the Israel-Hamas War

The Israel-Hamas war in Gaza is a watershed in the annals of modern history. While the complete ramifications are incipient and thus difficult to fully grasp, it is undeniable that this war represents a significant inflection point in the Israel-Palestine conflict. The repercussions of this war are expected to deeply affect both Israelis and Palestinians and will inevitably influence the already moribund peace talks aimed at establishing a two-state solution—a concept that, despite global endorsement, remains elusive in practice.

Often exploited by terrorist organizations as a pretext for committing egregious acts, the conflict is anticipated to incite further extremism. This trend is not limited to the regional players but extends globally, with the potential to radicalize individuals in disparate locales, including within Israel, where there is a discernible drift toward more extreme nationalist or religious ideologies.

In the aftermath of this war, social media platforms have experienced a pronounced surge in divisive and inflammatory content. This proliferation of hate speech has transcended the immediate geographic confines of Palestine and Israel, spreading throughout the Western Hemisphere and even into regions historically less attuned to the conflict. Although the roots of the conflict are entrenched in decades of strife, with regular escalations of violence in Gaza since Hamas’s ascendancy, this recent fighting has been notably the most catastrophic since the Nakba in 1948—especially concerning the Palestinian population.

Israeli tank in Gaza
Israeli tank in Gaza. (IDF)

The historical and religious stakes of the conflict hold immense significance for Jews, Muslims, and Christians alike, especially within the contested city of Jerusalem. Despite the appalling violence perpetrated against Palestinians in Gaza, the global communities—including Christian and Jewish Zionists—play a pivotal role in influencing pro-Israel legislation worldwide. Conversely, Western, and even Israeli Jews who publicly dissent against Israel’s policies often face ostracization and vilification. The narrative around the conflict is frequently framed in religious terms by Islamists, Zionist Jews, and Christians rather than as a discourse on displacement, dispossession, or territorial disputes.

The conflict has garnered extensive coverage by the international media for decades, ensuring its place as a highly visible and continually present issue in the collective global consciousness. Media portrayals often polarize the conflict, influencing public opinion and eliciting strong emotional reactions among audiences.

The visceral reaction to the human rights abuses inherent in the ongoing Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories, including the blockade of Gaza, is palpable. The constant flow of reports detailing mass civilian casualties in Gaza is galvanizing public opinion firmly against Israel. The latest figures include nearly 20,000 civilians killed, including 8,000 children, and the displacement of 80 percent of Gaza’s population of 2.3 million.

Viewed through a wider lens, the conflict is often perceived as emblematic of larger ideological confrontations: nationalism versus self-determination, or colonialism versus anti-colonialism. Such perceptions cause individuals to align their views with more expansive political or ideological convictions, resulting in firmly held beliefs about the conflict.

Jews and Palestinians who have either not been to the region in decades, or have never set foot in Gaza, the West Bank, or Israel, maintain potent connections to their ancestral lands. These communities frequently mobilize to garner support and heighten awareness, contributing to the conflict’s pervasive resonance on the global stage.

Israeli soldiers in the Gaza Strip
Israeli soldiers in the Gaza Strip. (IDF)

Social media platforms like Instagram, TikTok, Twitter, and Facebook have facilitated the rapid dissemination of information, imagery, and viewpoints, often bereft of context or factual verification. This has led to an intensification of emotions and entrenched viewpoints, as audiences are bombarded with vivid and graphic content that can profoundly influence their perceptions.

International solidarity movements, such as the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement and various pro-Israel advocacy groups, actively strive to influence public sentiment and government policies around the globe. Their activism ensures the conflict remains a prominent topic of public debate, prompting individuals to adopt positions on the matter.

In the digital sphere, particularly on social media platforms, this war has precipitated an alarming spike in hate speech, particularly targeting Arab, Palestinian, and Jewish communities. The imperative for these platforms to enforce stricter oversight over such content has become increasingly pressing.

Hate speech, fueled by the conflict, has led to incidents of violence, racism, and abuse against Palestinians, Arabs, and Jews worldwide—tragically, this has included random killings. Although Islamists have long propagated anti-Semitic rhetoric, the unprecedented calls for genocide and ethnic cleansing of Palestinians by some Israeli officials and their supporters, particularly in the U.S., is profoundly disconcerting.

Disturbingly, in the United States, former government officials have penned opinion pieces essentially endorsing mass violence against Palestinians. These radical narratives, disseminated by individuals with seemingly credible backgrounds risk being misconstrued by the public as authoritative rather than as hate-fueled bigotry. The U.S. has adopted a conservative approach to moderating online hate speech, capitulating to tech giants’ demands for lax content moderation and eschewing any legislative efforts to hold these companies accountable for misinformation and hate speech.

Destroyed homes in Khan Yunis following an Israeli air strike
Destroyed homes in Khan Yunis following an Israeli air strike. (Anas-Mohammed)

In stark contrast, the European Union has adopted a proactive stance—its Digital Services Act (DSA), which is itself an update to the Electronic Commerce Directive 2000, mandates compliance by Twitter, Wikipedia, TikTok, Facebook, and others, to regulate the spread of illegal content, including hate speech, under the threat of substantial financial penalties. According to the European Commission, “Following their designation, the companies will now have to comply, within four months, with the full set of new obligations under the DSA. These aim at empowering and protecting users online, including minors, by requiring the designated services to assess and mitigate their systemic risks and to provide robust content moderation tools.”

Although misinformation persists among European social media users, the rate at which this conflict has amplified misinformation and hate speech in the U.S. is particularly alarming. This is especially poignant given America’s role as Israel’s principal ally and its unique position as potentially the sole nation capable of facilitating a peace settlement.

The repercussions of online hate speech are dire and multifaceted. The relentless barrage of hateful rhetoric can cultivate an environment of incessant threat and insecurity. Moreover, the normalization of hate speech can escalate into physical violence, posing an immediate danger to individual safety and leading to broader social and cultural divisions.

Influencers and public figures with substantial social media followings possess significant clout in shaping narratives and opinions. Their interactions with or endorsements of hate speech can lend credence to such ideologies among their followers, further perpetuating the spread of such rhetoric. Conversely, they can act as agents of positive change, leveraging their platforms to challenge hate speech, foster understanding, and champion the causes of peace and tolerance.

Social media companies, as custodians of digital communication, must confront their role in this dilemma. While their platforms afford a voice to the masses, they are also susceptible to misuse as vehicles for fostering division and animosity. Proactive measures are indispensable to suppress the propagation of harmful content and to nurture a more constructive online discourse.

The Israel-Hamas war has underscored the pressing issue of hate speech in the digital age amid times of conflict and pronounced polarization. It has become alarmingly easy for influencers, particularly those with expansive followings, to disseminate hate and vitriol from behind their screens, often oblivious to the impact of their words on the multitude of followers they command. Inadvertently, they assume the role of hate preachers, regardless of which side of the conflict they support. It is incumbent upon social media companies to ensure their platforms are not harnessed for the propagation of hatred.

Legislative actions like the Digital Services Act, represent steps in the right direction. Nonetheless, there remains an abundance of work to be done to cultivate a respectful and inclusive online community—an endeavor that is quintessential for the preservation of the integrity of both our digital and global town square.